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英语写作窍门

2013-03-11  点击:1434

1. 注重写好文章的框架
我曾经问过我的外教老师, 外国人看文章最注重的是什么, 他告诉我说是文章的framework. 即一篇文章好不好, 首先看的不是他的句型, 词汇, 或是论点等。 而是段落之间的衔接一定要十分清楚,我们不能老是采用大三段的形式-开头,经过, 结尾。我们可以多用用连接词, 例如:first of all, morever, secondly, lastly等,另外可以多分自然段, 给考官一目了然的感觉。还有我们可以多看看国外的文章, 看看他们的写作模式, 我当初写文章的时候, 用的就是我看到一篇国外文章的模式,我觉得可以套用, 我最后介绍给大家。
2. 句型的多样化
如果一篇文章, 从头到尾, 永远用的只有一种句型, 那么这篇文章一定拿不到高分,我们可以适当的改换一下句型, 我给大家一定建议,希望给大家有点帮助。
3. 基本句型
I. 主谓句;Ⅱ. There be;Ⅲ. 主系表结构的句子;Ⅳ. 被动语态(我看到一张帖字说, 不要用被动, 我不这样认为, 国外的文章, 用被动的也比比皆是。)
4. 复杂句型
I. 并列句;Ⅱ. 从句(定语,状语,名词性,非谓语)
5. 词汇的Variety
说实话做到这点真的很难, 首先你要有庞大的词汇量,第二你要用的恰当,不出错误。我自认做不到这点,所以我用的词汇有时候会重复。当然大家可以累计一些固定搭配的词汇,例如:激烈的竞争 fiercecompetition等
6. 多举EXAMPLE(重要)
大家不要小看这点, 我认为对于写作基础不是很好的考生来说, 这点是最重要的。一篇文章如果让你从头到尾都在讲道理, 你有这么多话要说吗?而且有时候还不一定说的清楚。那么这时候你就用例子来表明你的观点。我认识一个朋友, 可以说她的英语基础很差, 但她的文章也拿了6分, 我问她怎么写的, 她告诉我说就是拼命的举例子。就这点我也曾问过我的外教老师, 他曾是IELTS的考官, 他说考官欢迎考生多举例子。
7. 建议:
写文章最关键的就是审题千万不要出错误, 不然就前功尽弃了。
例如我积累的句子:
Cultivateindependence
Develop a strong sense of responsibility
Enhance social awareness
Build up one’s confidence and offer one’s a sense of achievement—realize onesvalue and capacity
Widen one’s horizon and sharp one’s character
这些句子比较常用, 而且在口语考试中也可以派上用处。最后给大家介绍一种写作模式,我觉得很不错:
With unprecedented advances in medical technology, a debate has developed overwhether or not a person on life support has the right to die. On one side ofthe debate are those who say that...... On the other side is the viewthat...... In my mind, I completely agree/disagree the later .
There is nodenying that...has many positive effects. To begin with, ...Secondly,...Finally, ...
However, everycoin has its two sides. ...is no exception. Many opponents say that...

To conclude,一篇好文章的条件很多。除了内容丰富和组织紧密之外,词汇的运用和句子的处理,也起着决定性作用。句子可长可短,同一件事,可以用不同的句式表达。如果句子清一色是简单句,文章必定很单调乏 味。如果全篇充满了冗长的复杂句,读起来也很费力。
最好的方法是以简单句为基础,配合适当的并列 句和复杂句。简单句可长可短,通常要加些附属成分,如分词短语、介词短语、副词短语、不定式动词 短语,以及节缩成分。总之,作者可根据情况,使句子多样化,使文章灵活多姿。例如下列五个句子的基本概念一样,但是句式不同,内容重点也有些差别:
(1) The goatsgrazed peacefully in the farm and were unaware of the approaching hunter. (并列分句(1)+2)
(2) Grazingpeacefully, the goats in the farm were unaware of the approaching hunter. (现在分语短语+简单句)
(3) In the farm,the goats grazed peacefully and were unaware of the approaching hunter. (副词短语+并列分句(1)-(2) )
(4) There weregoats grazing peacefully in the farm, unaware of the approaching hunter. (简单句+形容语短语)
(5) As the goatsgrazed peacefully in the farm, they were unaware of the approaching hunter. (原因副词从句+主句)
(6) The youngpilot was on his first overseas training.
(7) He felt veryuneasy.
  (a) The youngpilot on his first overseas training felt very uneasy.
  (b) The youngpilot felt very uneasy during his first overseas training.
  (c) The youngpilot's first overseas training made him feel very uneasy.
  (d) Extremeuneasiness seized the young pilot on his first overseas training.
  (e) The youngpilot was on his first overseas training, feeling very uneasy.
  (f) It being hisfirst overseas training, the young pilot felt very uneasy.
  (g) Being on hisfirst overseas training, the young pilot felt very uneasy.
  (h) The youngpilot was on his first overseas training and felt very uneasy.
  (i) The youngpilot, who was on his first overseas training, felt very uneasy.
  (j) When theyoung pilot was on his/first overseas trainging, he felt very uneasy.
  (k) As the youngpilot was on his first overseas training, he felt very uneasy.
  (l) The youngpilot was on his first overseas training, so that he felt very uneasy.
在上述12个句子中,(a)-(g)是简单句;(h)是并列句;(i)-(l)是复杂句。简单句除(b)和(g)之外, 其他五样,用的人并不多。人们最喜欢采用复杂句,尤其是(j)和(k)这两款;接着便是并列句(h)。如果 大多数人的句子只限于(b),(g), (h),(j)和(k)这五种,而其他的则弃如敝屣,不是很可惜吗?

 

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